12 Jun Child Psychology And Development
Child Psychology And Development
What is child psychology?
In definitive terms, child psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the mind and behaviour of children from prenatal development through adolescence. Child psychology includes not only a child’s physical development but also his emotional, mental, and social well-being. Child psychologists attempt to make sense of every aspect of child development, including how children learn, think, interact and respond emotionally to those around them, make friends, understand emotions and their own personalities, temperaments and skills.
Historically, children were viewed as smaller versions of adults until Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget, made ground-breaking revelations in the field of child psychology. His discovery suggested that children actually think differently than adults. Albert Einstein proclaimed that the discovery was “ so simple that only a genius could have thought of it. ”
Today, psychologists unanimously believe that child psychology is unique and complex. However, they hold different responses to some of the bigger questions in child development psychology. For e.g. Do early experiences matter more than later ones?
As childhood has a tremendous impact on the adult, experts focus on the multiple influencers that contribute to a child’s healthy proliferation. They also pay attention to other variables that might lead to psychological problems during childhood. Some of these factors are self-esteem, school, parents, societal pressures, etc.
Different Contexts Of Child Psychology.
While internal characteristics such as genetics certainly affect a child’s development, one must also consider the influence of environmental factors such as culture and social relationships.
Here are some of the major contexts that must be included in the analysis of child development psychology :
The Social Context: Relationships with peers and adults affect a child’s thinking, learning, and development. Families, schools, and peer groups are essential in the social context.
The Cultural Context: The culture a child is exposed to moulds his set of values, customs, thoughts, shared assumptions, and ways of living. These aspects will influence development throughout his lifespan. Culture may also play a role in the individual’s childcare, education, and familial relations.
The Socioeconomic Context: Social class can also play a major role in child development. Socioeconomic status consists of a variety of factors such as a person’s level of education, his income, job security, and where he lives. Children raised in households with higher socioeconomic status tend to have greater access to opportunities. On the other hand, those belonging to the lower socioeconomic strata might have restricted access to quality education, healthcare, and nutrition. Such factors have an enormous impact on child psychology.
However, we must remember that all three contexts are constantly interacting with each other. While a child may have limited opportunities due to his lower socioeconomic status, enriching and supportive social relationships and strong cultural ties may help restore equilibrium.
What Do Child Psychologists Study?
Child psychology encompasses a broad spectrum of topics, from the genetic influences on behaviour to the social pressures on development. The following subjects are essential to the study of child psychology :
Genetics – Genetics play a powerful role in the development of a child and they interact with the environment to determine the child’s growth. For e.g. Down syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality that will affect your child’s development.
Environmental influences – While biological influences strongly affect some aspects of development, environmental factors also play a role. E.g. The timing of the onset of puberty is largely hereditary. However, environmental factors such as nutrition can also affect this.
Prenatal development – This is the process that occurs 40 weeks prior to the birth of a child. Genetics heavily influence prenatal development. It consists of 3 stages: germinal, embryonic, and fetal.
Social growth – Through this process, a child learns how to interact with others in his environment. While getting in touch with his own individuality, he also acquires essential communication skills.
Personality Development – Personality development is affected by a combination of social influences, biological maturation, and parent-child and peer relationships. It is also affected by the child’s representation of the world around him.
Language – Language development is the process through which children understand and communicate language during their early childhood years.
Gender roles – A child’s understanding of gender roles will undoubtedly impact the way he socializes with his peers and forms relationships. Parents should ensure they’re imparting values that support healthy gender role development.
Cognitive development- This field of study focuses on a child’s development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of cognitive psychology.
Sexual development – Human sexual development occurs in stages. At each stage, the child acquires knowledge and learns skills for sexual development into adulthood. Sexual development takes place in tandem with physical, psychological, social, intellectual, and emotional development.
Also Read: 7 Exercises To Control Your Child’s Anger
Child psychologists might specialize in helping children cope with developmental concerns, or they might adopt a more general approach. Either way, these professionals strive to improve the quality of a child’s life by helping him overcome potential problems. For e.g. A psychologist might work with children to help nurture a growth mindset.
Child psychologists often work in practical settings such as schools and hospitals in order to foster development. Educational psychologists work with children who face difficulties in learning, understanding, or communicating with others. They might also help children with behavioural difficulties. Educational psychologists work in schools with teachers, families, and school administrators to help children who are struggling with specific educational issues.
Clinical psychologists study, assess, and treat a wide range of biological, psychological and social problems that children and young people may experience in their personal lives. They often use diagnostic tests to identify children who are experiencing mental health difficulties or who are at risk of having some kind of developmental disorder, such as autism or ADHD. By observing how children of a certain age typically respond, clinical psychologists can identify symptoms of mental health difficulties, or developmental disorders, and provide appropriate treatment and support as early as possible.
The ultimate goal of the complex field of child psychology is to study the various influencers and factors that combine and interact to shape children into who they are. The knowledge acquired through research improves parenting, education, childcare, psychotherapy, and similar fields that are dedicated to benefitting children. By gaining a deeper understanding of how children think, grow, and behave, parents and professionals can be better equipped to help and support the children entrusted to their care.